Metformin is quite an old drug, but it is optimal for the control of glycemia in Type 2 diabetes. It was reported, 15 years ago, that insulin resistance was abnormally high in most polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients. which is the most common cause of menstrual irregularity, inesthetisms and infertility. Metformin induces higher glucose uptake, thus inducing a lower synthesis/secretion of insulin. Such an effect permits the possible restoration of the normal biological functions that are severely affected by the compensatory hyperinsulinemia reactive to the increased peripheral insulin resistance. These are the basis of the many positive effects of this drug, such as the restoration of menstrual cyclicity, ovulatory cycles and fertility, because abnormal insulin levels affect the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian function, as well as the use of glucose in peripheral tissues. Metformin improves the impairments typically observed in hyperinsulinemic PCOS patients, reducing the possible evolution towards metabolic syndrome and Type 2 diabetes; and when pregnancy occurs, it consistently reduces the risk of gestational diabetes, eclampsia and hypertension
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